I am a medical anthropologist with interdisciplinary training in cultural anthropology, epidemiology, and clinical research. I earned my Ph.D. in sociocultural anthropology and a concurrent MPH in epidemiology at the University of Washington. I also hold an M.A. in sociology from Central European University and a B.A. in anthropology from Reed College.
My research explores lived experiences of substance use and the impacts of drug policy on the health and wellness of people who use drugs. I have written an award winning book exploring the experience of people in Ukraine who seek treatment for opioid use disorder at internationally-funded methadone clinics as well as the role of those clinics in Ukraine’s geopolitical conflict and ongoing war with Russia. Through my ethnographic research in the United States, I was one of the first researchers to systematically document the perspectives of people who use drugs on fentanyl contamination in the U.S. drug supply, providing new evidence that fentanyl is a supply-side (not demand driven) phenomenon. My current research explores the impact of punitive civil and criminal responses to substance use on overdose risk and community health in the United States and the changing risk environment faced by people who use drugs during COVID-19 in the Russian Federation.
In addition to my independent and community-driven scholarship, I also serve as a subject matter expert and program consultant for the Division of Overdose Prevention, part of the National Center for Injury Prevention and control at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Narkomania: Drugs, HIV, and Citizenship in Ukraine. Cornell University Press. 2019/ *Winner of the AWSS Heldt Prize for best book written by a woman in any area of Slavic, Eastern European, and Eurasian studies.
Federal Guidelines and Recommendations
2022 Jennifer J. Carroll, Alice Asher, Vikram Krishnasamy, Deborah Dowell. “Every Door is the Right Door: Linkage to Care for Individuals Living with Opioid Use Disorder.” National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdf/pubs/Linkage-to-Care_Edited-PDF_508-3-15-2022.pdf
Jennifer J. Carroll, Traci C. Green, Rita K. Noonan. “Evidence-Based Strategies for Preventing Opioid Overdose: What’s Working in the United States.” National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2018. http://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdf/pubs/2018-evidence-based-strategies.pdf
Select Peer-Reviewed Articles
2023 Shoshana V. Aronowitz,* Jennifer J. Carroll,* Helena Hansen,* Marie Jauffret-Roustide,* Caroline Parker,* Selena Suhail-Sindhu,* Carmen E. Albizu-Garcia, Margarita Alegria, Jaime Arrendondo, Alexander Baldacchino, Ricky Bluthenthal, Philippe Bourgois, Joshua Burraway, Jia-shin Chen, Hamed Ekhtiari, Ali Farhoudian, Joseph Friedman, Hussein Elkhoyl, Ayana Jordan, Lindsey Kato, Kelly R. Knight, Carlos Martinez, Ryan McNeil, Hayley Murray, Sarah Namirembe, Ramin Radfar, Laura Roe, Anya Sarang, China Scherz, Joe Tay Wee Teck, Lauren Textor, Khuat Thi Hai Oanh. “Substance Use Policy in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Learning from Internationally Comparative Field Data.” Global Public Health. Online ahead of print.
*These individuals share first author position.
2022 Jennifer J. Carroll, Phoebe Cushman, Marlene C. Lira, Jonathan Colasanti, Carlos del Rio, Karen Lasser, Victoria Parker, Jeffrey H. Samet, Jane M. Liebschutz. “Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Opioid Prescribing in Primary Care: Implementation Outcomes Identified in Two Studies.” Journal of General Internal Medicine.
2022 Brandon Morrissey*, Tamera Hughes, Bayla Ostrach, Loftin Wilson, Reid Getty, Tonya Combs, Jesse Bennett, Jennifer J. Carroll. “‘They Don’t Go by the Law Around Here’: Law Enforcement Interactions After the Legalization of Syringe Services Programs in North Carolina.” Harm Reduction Journal 19, 106.
2022 Jennifer J. Carroll, Sarah L. Rossi, Marina V. Vetrova, Tetiana Kiriazova, Karsten Lunze. “Supporting the Health HIV-positive People Who Inject Drugs During COVID-19 and Beyond: Lessons for the United States from St. Petersburg, Russia.” American Journal of Public Health 112, S123-S127.
2022 Jennifer J. Carroll, Sarah Mackin, Clare Schmidt, Michelle McKenzie, Traci C. Green. “The Bronze Age of Drug Checking: Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing Advanced Drug Checking Amidst Police Violence and COVID-19.” Harm Reduction Journal 19(9).
2021 Jennifer J. Carroll, Bayla Ostrach, Loftin Wilson, Jesse Lee Dunlap, Reid Getty, Jesse Bennett. “Drug-Induced Homicide Laws May Worsen Opioid Related Harms: An Example from Rural North Carolina.” International Journal of Drug Policy, 97:103406
2021 Jennifer J. Carroll, Taleed El-Sabawi, Bayla Ostrach. “The Harms of Punishing Substance Use During Pregnancy.” International Journal of Drug Policy, 98:103433.
2021 Jennifer J. Carroll. “Auras of Detection: Technology, Phenomenology, and Authority in the War on Drugs.” Contemporary Drug Problems 48(4): 327-345.
2021 Jennifer J. Carroll, Cameron Mullins, Georgia Burnham-Lemaire, Hannah Korycinski, Hannaleigh Pierce, Mackenzie Martinez, Taleed El-Sabawi. “Student Perceptions of a University Medical Amnesty Policy are Impacted by Race and Racism: A Qualitative Study.” Substance Use and Misuse 56(2): 185-191..
2021 Jennifer. J. Carroll, Marlene C. Lira, Karsten Lunze, Jonathan Colasanti, Jeffery Samet, Carlos del Rio. “Painful Subjects: Treating Chronic Pain among People Living with HIV in the Age of Opioid Risk.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly.
2020 Jennifer J. Carroll, Sasha Mital, Jessica Wolff, Rita K. Noonan, Pedro Martinez, Melissa C. Podolsky, John C. Killorin, Traci C, Green. “Knowledge, Preparedness, and Compassion Fatigue among Officers who Respond to Opioid Overdose.” Drug & Alcohol Dependence: 217: 108275.
2020 Sasha Mital, Jessica Wolff, Jennifer J. Carroll. “The Relationship Between Incarceration History and Overdose in North America: A Scoping Review of the Evidence.” Drug & Alcohol Dependence: 213: 108088.
2020 Jennifer J. Carroll, Josiah D. Rich, Traci C. Green. “The Protective Effect of Trusted Dealers Against Opioid Overdose in the U.S.” International Journal of Drug Policy, 78:102065.
2019 Jennifer J. Carroll. “Sovereign Rules and Rearrangements: Banning Methadone in Occupied Crimea” Medical Anthropology. 38(6): 508-522.
*Winner of the 2019 American Association for Ukrainian Studies Article Prize
*Winner of the 2019 Rudolf Virchow Award for Best Article.
2019 Jennifer J. Carroll, Jonathan Colasanti, Marlene C. Lira, Carlos del Rio, Jeffrey Samet. “HIV Physicians and Chronic Opioid Therapy: It’s Time to Raise the Bar.” AIDS & Behavior 23(4): 1057-1061.
2018 Jennifer J. Carroll, Josiah D. Rich, and Traci C. Green. “Reducing Collateral Damage in Response to the Opioid Crisis.” American Journal of Public Health. 108(3): 349-350.
2018 Jennifer J. Carroll, Josiah D. Rich, and Traci C. Green. “The More Things Change: Buprenorphine/naloxone Diversion Continues While Treatment Remains Unavailable.” Journal of Addiction Medicine. 12(6): 459-465.
2017 Jennifer J. Carroll, Brandon D. L. Marshall, Josiah D. Rich, and Traci C. Green. “Exposure to fentanyl-contaminated heroin and overdose risk among illicit opioid users in Rhode Island: A mixed methods study.” International Journal of Drug Policy. 46: 136-145.
2016 Jennifer J. Carroll. “For Lack of Wanting: Discourses of Desire in Ukrainian Opiate Substitution Therapy Programs.” Transcultural Psychiatry 53(2): 198-216.
*Winner of the 2016 American Association for Ukrainian Studies Article Prize.
Honors and Awards
2022 Runner-up, Best Research Abstract, awarded by the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse.
2020 Winner, Barbara Heldt Prize for best book written by a woman in any area of Slavic, Eastern European, and Eurasian studies, awarded by the Association for Women in Slavic Studies.
2020 Fellow, Drug Policy Research Incubator on How People Procure and Use Drugs, directed by the Drug Policy Alliance.
2019 Critical Anthropology of Global Health (Special Interest Group of the Society for Medical Anthropology) Rudolf Virchow Award, Professional Category, for Best Article.
2019 Periclean Faculty Leadership Award, supported by Project Pericles to develop novel undergraduate courses that promote civic engagement. $3,000 award directed towards the development of a course entitled “Citizenship in Crisis” and “(the) Local Matters” speaker series on substance use in Alamance County.
2019 American Association for Ukrainian Studies Prize for Best Peer-Reviewed Article Published in 2017 or 2018.
2018 American Society for Addiction Medicine’s Honorable Mention: Best Overall recognition for abstracts submitted to the 2018 ASAM Annual Meeting.
2017 American Public Health Association’s 2017 Editor’s Choice Award: Reviewer of the Year for academic contributions to the American Journal of Public Health.
2016 American Association for Ukrainian Studies Prize for Best Peer-Reviewed Article Published in 2014 or 2015.
2015 Society for the Anthropology of Europe (SAE; Section of the American Anthropological Association) Graduate Paper Prize.
2015 Joan Webber Award for Outstanding Teaching by a Graduate Student in English Department Writing Programs. Awarded by the University of Washington Department of English.
2014 Science, Technology, and Medicine Group (STM; Section of the American Anthropological Association) Graduate Paper Prize.
2014 Finalist, K. Patricia Cross Future Leaders Award, awarded by the American Association of Colleges and Universities.
2014 Honorable Mention. American Anthropological Association 2014-2015 Photo Contest.
2011 AIDS and Anthropology Research Group (AARG; Section of the American Anthropological Association) Graduate Paper Prize.
2011 Honorable Mention, Alcohol Drug and Tobacco Research Group (ADTRG; Section of the American Anthropological Association) Graduate Paper Prize.
T32 Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior The Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University 2017
T32 Postdoctoral Fellow Division of Infectious Diseases The Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University 2016
Ph.D. Anthropology University of Washington 2015
MPH Epidemiology University of Washington 2015
M.A. Anthropology University of Washington 2011
M.A. Sociology Central European University 2007
B.A. Anthropology Reed College 2003
Growing evidence suggests that law enforcement efforts to disrupt the illicit drug supply increases overdose risk for people who use drugs, producing new overdose events in the surrounding community. Research conducted by Dr. Jennifer J. Carroll, for example, demonstrates that law enforcement disruption in the form of seized drug supply or arrests made to remove key actors from the drug market may force people who regularly use drugs to seek out alternative dealers or different substances to avoid withdrawal. People who use illicit drugs are generally unaware of the actual content of a substance from a new dealer, or tolerance for the substance, which increases their risk of overdose. To date, however, research on this topic has been limited to national or statewide aggregated cross-sectional data, or qualitative methodologies. This is the first study to systematically assess whether seizures of illicit substances by law enforcement ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“ specifically seizures of stimulants and opioids ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å“ affects the risk of overdose for people who use drugs in the surrounding community. Using street-level data on law enforcement drug seizures, along with fatal and non-fatal overdose events, our approach aims to use generalizable methodologies to create an open-source database of drug seizure events that can be replicated in multiple jurisdictions as part of ongoing surveillance. Through community partnerships and collaborative analysis that centers the expertise of people who use drugs, we aim to help communities understand how drug market disruptions affect public health, so that drivers of preventable overdose death can be mitigated.
Opioid-agonist medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) are evidence-based treatments and the current gold standard of care for people living with opioid use disorder (OUD).1 Opioid agonist MOUD also protect against opioid overdose, which claimed the lives of nearly 3,500 North Carolinians in 2021. With overdose deaths reaching record numbers each year, ensuring that North Carolinians have sufficient access to MOUD is more important than ever. Despite this, many well-known treatment providers in North Carolina refuse to provide participants in their therapeutic programs with access to MOUD for philosophical and/or logistical reasons. Even though they do not offer evidence-based care, some of those providers enjoy significant financial support from the state. This project will be the first of its kind to thoroughly evaluate access to MOUD (or lack thereof) at substance use disorder treatment providers in North Carolina. We will first conduct a thorough inventory of self-advertised residential treatment providers across the state, whatever their licensure or accreditation. We will then conduct structured outreach to assess each treatment providerâ€™s services and policies regarding on-site administration or facilitated off-site access to opioid agonist MOUD. We will also conduct outreach to all 49 recognized Adult Drug Treatment Court programs in North Carolina to determine policies governing the provision or use of MOUD among court participants. The findings from this study will identify current treatment gaps across the state of North Carolina, characterize the actual treatment capacity for addressing opioid use disorder within the state, and offer much needed guidance to policy-makers at the state and county levels as they prepare to allocate funds soon to be received from the global opioid settlement.
Dr. Jennifer J. Carroll is a medical anthropologist who specializes in drug use and overdose prevention. She is an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at North Carolina State University and an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Medicine at Brown University. She holds a doctorate in anthropology and a Master in Public Health in epidemiology from the University of Washington. She has been conducting research on harm reduction and drug treatment efforts in Ukraine since 2007 and is currently writing a book on drug use and global health in Ukraine before, during and after the country's recent political revolution The assignment for Dr. Carroll will allow CDC to have essential expertise and consultation while working on the Opioid Response Strategy, Rapid Response Project, and other applicable tasks. Her expertise in the intersections of public health and public safety will greatly benefit DOP/PPEB. In concert with CDC Scientist and staff, Dr. Carroll will contribute to: 1. Scientific writing and review. Assist in the completion of scientific papers and projects. Specifically, work with CDC employees on the conceptualization, analysis, and/or writing of papers; review documents; review and revise CDC-generated research instruments for OMB packages or other purposes. 2. Provide training and mentoring to CDC scientists, partners, and/or funded recipients. Support CDC training needs in the area illicit opioids, injection drug use, and qualitative research methods. 3. Offer technical assistance to CDC staff, as needed, to support projects such as the Opioid Rapid Response Program, Narconomics feasibility study, ODMAP scale-up, or work with harm reduction partners. Specifically, Dr. Carroll may be called upon to consult on the creation of knowledge translation documents, evaluation tools, development of survey or interview instruments, and writing up guidance documents. Some travel may be required. 4. Consult with Opioid Response Strategy team as needed to offer technical assistance to cornerstone data analysis, document review, or scholarly writing.
This project will conduct formative research to develop a model for HIV prevention among PWID by providing PrEP alongside MOUD and HCV care via telehealth at a syringe services program (SSP). We will enroll 30 HIV-negative PWID at an SSP run by our collaborators at the North Carolina Survivors Union (NCSU) in Greensboro, in Guilford County, NC. All participants will be eligible for PrEP, and will undergo screening to evaluate whether they are also candidates for MOUD and/or HCV treatment. The baseline visit will be conducted in-person with the study PI, Dr. McKellar, a licensed and experienced physician. Dr. McKellar, who already provides telehealth visits for Duke PrEP Clinic patients, will conduct subsequent visits remotely via telehealth. A local peer case manager trained in phlebotomy will obtain samples at the SSP for baseline and follow-up laboratory testing at a collaborating lab. We will follow participants for 6 months, then link them to local providers for continuation of PrEP and/or MOUD treatment â€“ or they may continue with the Duke provider. We will conduct participant questionnaires at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, and participant interviews at 1 month and 6 months to assess acceptability and feasibility from a patient perspective. In addition to consulting on the implementation of this telehealth clinic, Dr. Carroll will conduct interviews with SSP staff and the clinical team to assess implementation feasibility from a provider perspective. Questionnaires and interviews will be guided by the Technology Acceptance Model and Implementation Research Logic Model.
Non-fatal opioid overdose is the strongest predictor of a subsequent fatal overdose. Thus, non-fatal overdoses are pivotal opportunities, usually missed, to engage survivors in treatment and overdose prevention to reduce the likelihood of a future fatal overdose. The emergence of KT programs in Massachusetts provides the opportunity to conduct a rigorous natural experiment to assess their effectiveness to reduce opioid overdoses. Further opportunity exists to identify best practices, unintended consequences, implementation barriers and facilitators, and to develop evidence-informed guideline recommendations for these programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation and impacts of these novel outreach programs through a comprehensive inventory of active post-overdose outreach programs in Massachusetts; To identify best practices, unintended consequences, and implementation barriers and facilitators of post-overdose outreach through qualitative interviews with front line staff and recipients; to determine the effectiveness of KT programs in reducing opioid overdoses; and to develop post-overdose outreach program guideline recommendations useful to public health departments.