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Study Highlights Keys to Helping Dads Be There For Kids When They Don’t Have Custody

man carrying a smiling child

A new study from North Carolina State University and Virginia Commonwealth University highlights several factors that play key roles in determining the extent to which fathers who don’t have custody are involved in their children’s lives – specifically in cases where the children are in “kinship care.”

“A lot of work has been done on mothers and children who are in kinship care, meaning that the primary caregiver for the children is a member of the extended family, including friends who are ‘like family,’” says Qiana Cryer-Coupet, who is senior author of the study and an assistant professor in NC State’s School of Social Work. “But fathers are also often significant figures in kinship-care arrangements, and there is far less research on how we can work with fathers and kinship caregivers to support the well-being of children.

“This study is exploratory, but it is fundamental to the broader goal of fostering engagement with fathers,” Cryer-Coupet says.

For this qualitative study, researchers conducted in-depth interviews with 25 fathers whose children were in kinship care. And they found three factors that played an important role in determining the extent to which fathers felt they could be involved in the lives of their children.

A significant factor was self-efficacy, or the extent to which the fathers felt that they had the tools they needed to parent successfully. Much of the concern here revolved around having sufficient financial resources to support their child. For example, one father highlighted the difficulty of feeding and housing a family on minimum-wage earnings.

A second factor was the relationship that each father had with his child’s primary caregiver. For example, fathers were better able to be part of their children’s lives when caregivers shared information with the fathers about opportunities to be actively engaged – such as upcoming doctor’s appointments, school meetings or children’s sports.

“This finding is valuable, because it tells us that we need to train social workers in how to navigate co-parenting circumstances in which the parents were never partners,” Cryer-Coupet says. “For example, the father may be co-parenting with the child’s maternal grandmother. The dynamics can be very different.”

The third factor was the father’s relationship with the child. This included the degree of comfort and familiarity between father and child, but it also extended to how the father was able to relate to the child in the context of institutional systems.

“Many fathers are not always clear on what their parental rights are,” Cryer-Coupet says. “And social workers may need to help fathers navigate social services, education, healthcare and the legal system. These systems are often complex and complicated, which may pose an obstacle to the father being as engaged as they want to be with their children’s lives.

“One other finding that we found interesting was the extent to which fathers were using various technologies to create additional opportunities to interact with their children – whether that was through the chatrooms on video games or through video-call apps.

“This work represents a significant step forward in our understanding of fathers with children in kinship care, but it also underscores how understudied this group is,” Cryer-Coupet says. “Further research is warranted, and we are hoping to secure funding that would allow us to conduct a larger, longer-term study. There’s every reason to believe that work in this area could have significant benefits for both children and fathers.”

The paper, “Father Involvement in Kinship Care: A Risk and Resilience Perspective,” is published in the journal Children and Youth Services Review. First author of the paper is Stephen Gibson, a former graduate student at NC State who is now a Ph.D. student at VCU. The paper was co-authored by Jerica Knox, who is a Ph.D. student at NC State; and by Kimberly Field, a former undergraduate at NC State.

Cryer-Coupet directs the Whole Dad Lab at NC State. The current study was part of a larger project that seeks to understand father, caregiver, and practitioner perspectives on father engagement in kinship care. The work was done with support from the Fatherhood Research and Practice Network and the Office of Family Programs in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Administration for Children and Families, under grant number 90PR0006.


Note to Editors: The study abstract follows.

“Father Involvement in Kinship Care: A Risk and Resilience Perspective”

Authors: Stephen Gibson, Virginia Commonwealth University; Qiana R. Cryer-Coupet, Jerica Knox and Kimberly Field, North Carolina State University

Published: Aug. 13, Children and Youth Services Review

DOI: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105354

Abstract: Kinship care refers to familial arrangements where the primary caregiver(s) are biological relatives, godparents, or other fictive kin with strong bonds, raising children when the biological parents are unable. The majority of children living in a home with neither of their biological parents present are living in kinship care arrangements. Previous research has primarily focused on maternal involvement and experiences in kinship care; however, little is known about paternal access, engagement, and responsibility in these arrangements. Researchers and practitioners have identified factors that can serve as barriers and facilitators to fathers’ involvement in various contexts. The current study seeks to gain a better understanding of the experiences of fathers with children living in kinship care. To address these goals, we asked the two following questions: (1) What are fathers’ experiences regarding involvement with their children in kinship care arrangements? and (2) What are the common barriers and facilitators to fathers’ involvement in kinship care arrangements? Participants included 25 self-identified fathers of children living in kinship care arrangements. Findings suggest that relationship quality among father-child(ren) and father-caregiver, as well as paternal self-efficacy, each have implications for paternal involvement in kinship care. Continuing this line of research will provide support for enhancing father involvement in a manner that best supports child outcomes in kinship care.

This post was originally published in NC State News.